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Lutein, Marigold Extract
Lutein, Marigold Extract
Synonyms--- Marigold is not Caledula (Pot marigold)
Lutein (Luteine, trans-lutein)
Chemical Name: β, ε-carotene-3, 3’-diol
Molecular Formula: C40H56O2
Mol. Wt.: 568.87
Tagetes(Marigold) is a genus of 52 species of annual and perennial herbaceous plants in the daisy family (Asteraceae or Compositae). They are native to the area stretching from the southwestern United States into Mexico and south throughout South America,but naturalize now in many countries including China, particularly the species Tagetes erecta. Tagets erecta has pinnate green leaves, and yellow floral heads typically 4-6cm diameter. The foliage has a musky, pungent scent. It is said to deter some common insect pests, as well as nematodes. Tagetes are hence often used in companion planting for tomato, eggplant, pepper, tobacco and potato.
"Marigold" is derived from "Mary's Gold", and the plant is associated with the Virgin Mary in Christian stories. Tagetes is not to be confused with the genus Calendula and other species also called marigold in some areas.
The petals of Tagetes are rich in the orange-yellow carotenoid lutein and as such extracts of T. erecta are used as a food colour (INS-Number E161b).
Lutein, from Latin luteus meaning "yellow", is one of over 600 known naturally occurring carotenoids. Found in green leafy vegetables such as spinach and kale, lutein is employed by organisms as an antioxidant and for blue light absorption. Lutein is present in the plant as fatty-acid ester, with one or two fatty acids bound to the two hydroxyl-groups. Saponification of lutein esters yields lutein in approximately a 1:2 molar ratio. Lutein is also found in egg yolks, animal fats and the corpus luteum. Lutein is a lipophilic molecule and is generally insoluble in water. The presence of the long chromophore of conjugated double bonds (polyene chain) provides the distinctive light-absorbing properties. The polyene chain is susceptible to oxidative degradation by light or heat and is chemically unstable in acids.
The principal natural stereoisomer of lutein is (3R, 3′R, 6′R)-beta, epsilon-carotene-3, 3′-diol.
Lutein is a natural part of human diet when fruits and vegetables are consumed. For individuals lacking sufficient lutein intake, lutein-fortified foods are available, or in the case of elderly people with a poorly absorbing digestive system, a sublingual spray is available. As early as 1996, lutein has been incorporated into dietary supplements.
The functional difference between lutein (free form) and lutein esters is not entirely known. It is suggested that the bioavailability is lower for lutein esters, but much debate continues.
The Marigold Extract (Lutein: E number E161b) used as a food additive, is derived from the flower petals of the plant Tagetes erecta.
Commercial value: TheLutein market is segmented into pharmaceutical, nutraceutical, food, pet foods, and animal and fish feed. The pharmaceutical market is estimated to be about US $190 million, nutraceutical and Food is estimated to be about US $110 million. Pet foods and other applications are estimated at US $175 million annually. Apart from the customary age related macular degeneration applications, newer applications are emerging in cosmetics, skins and as an antioxidant. It is one of the fastest growing areas of the US $2 billion carotenoid market.
·α-Carotene · β-Carotene · γ-Carotene · δ-Carotene
·ε-Carotene · ζ-Carotene · Lycopene · Neurosporene
·Phytoene · Phytofluene
·Antheraxanthin · Astaxanthin · Canthaxanthin · Citranaxanthin
·Cryptoxanthin · Diadinoxanthin · Diatoxanthin · Dinoxanthin
·Flavoxanthin · Fucoxanthin · Lutein · Neoxanthin
·Rhodoxanthin · Rubixanthin · Violaxanthin ·Zeaxanthin
·Abscisic acid · Apocarotenal · Bixin · Crocetin · Food orange 7
·Ionones · Peridinin
Vitamin A retinoids(C20)
·Retinal · Retinoic acid · Retinol
·Acitretin · Alitretinoin · Bexarotene · Etretinate · Fenretinide
·Isotretinoin · Tazarotene · Tretinoin
• Use as yellow pigments for food of broiler chicken ((INS-Number E161b)
• Benefit eye healthy
Increase macula pigmentation and deduce the risk of AMD (Age-related Macular Degeneration)
Play a role in Haidinger's brush, an entoptic phenomenon that allows humans to detect polarized light.
• Use as cosmetics materials
As a pigment
Lutein (a kind of xanthophyll), like its sister compound zeaxanthin(also a kind of xanthophyll), has primarily been used as a natural colorant due to its orange-red color. Lutein absorbs blue light and therefore appears yellow at low concentrations and orange-red at high concentrations.
Lutein was traditionally used in chicken feed to provide the yellow color of broiler chicken skin. Polled consumers viewed yellow chicken skin more favorably than white chicken skin. Such lutein fortification also results in a darker yellow egg yolk. Today the coloring of the egg yolk has become the primary reason for feed fortification. Lutein is not used as a colorant in other foods due to its limited stability, especially in the presence of other dyes.
Role in human eyes
Lutein was found to be concentrated in the macula, a small area of the retina responsible for central vision. The hypothesis for the natural concentration is that lutein helps protect from oxidative stress and high-energy light. Various research studies have shown that a direct relationship exists between lutein intake and pigmentation in the eye. Several studies also show that an increase in macula pigmentation decreases the risk for eye diseases such as Age-related Macular Degeneration (AMD). The only randomized clinical trial to demonstrate a benefit for lutein in Macular Degeneration was a small study, in which the authors concluded that visual function is improved with lutein alone or lutein together with other nutrients and also that more study was needed.
Lutein may also play a role in Haidinger's brush, an entoptic phenomenon that allows humans to detect polarized light.
Relationship with diseases of the eye
There is epidemiological evidence of a relationship between low plasma concentrations of lutein and zeaxanthin on the one hand, and the risk of developing age-related macular degeneration (AMD) on the other. Some studies support the view that supplemental lutein and/or zeaxanthin help protect against AMD. There is also epidemiological evidence that increasing lutein and zeaxanthin intake lowers the risk of cataract development.
Lutein is safe. The only definitive side effect of excess lutein consumption is bronzing of the skin (carotenodermia).
• Norecommended daily allowance currently exists for lutein as for other nutrients, positive effects have been seen at dietary intake levels of 6-10 mg/day.
• Consult physicians for different condition specifics.
GNI’s Marigold Extract (Lutein) Features and Benefits:
Marigold Extract (Lutein) is one of GNI's important products, with many advantages as list in the following, produced as our patent-pending process and know-how technology from Tagetes erecta L. flower petals.
• High purity: over 80%
• NO solvent - residual free
• Crystal Yellow to Dark Brown in appearance
• High anti-bacteria, and longer shelf life
3%, 5%, 20%, 80% Lutein (Xanthophyll) UV;
5%, 20%, 50% Zeaxanthin HPLC