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Senna Leaf Extract
Senna Leaf Extract
Synonyms--- Cassia acutifoliaDelile, Cassia senna L., Cassia angustifolia Vahl.Senna alexandrina L.
Chemical Name: (9R)-9-[(9R)-2-carboxy-4-hydroxy-10-oxo-5-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-9H-anthracen-9-yl]-4-hydroxy-10-oxo-5-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-9H-anthracene-2-carboxylic
CAS No.: 81-27-6
Molecular Formula: C42H38O20
Chemical Name: (9S)-9-[(9R)-2-Carboxy-4-hydroxy-10-oxo-5-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-9H-anthracen-9-yl]-4-hydroxy-10-oxo-5-[(2S,3R,4S,5S,6R)-3,4,5-trihydroxy-6-(hydroxymethyl)oxan-2-yl]oxy-9H-anthracene-2-carboxylic acid
CAS No.: 128-57-4
Molecular Formula: C42H38O20
Mol. Wt.: 862.75
CAS No.: 37271-16-2
Molecular Formula: C42H40O19
CAS No.: 37271-17-3
Molecular Formula: C42H40O19
Senna(from Arabic sanā), the sennas, is a large genus of flowering plants in the family Fabaceae, subfamily Caesalpinioideae. This diverse genus is native throughout the tropics, with a small number of species reaching into temperate regions. The number of species is usually estimated to be about 260, but some authors believe that there are as many as 350. The type species for the genus is Senna alexandrina. About 50 species of Senna are known in cultivation.The sennas are typically shrubs or subshrubs, some becoming scandent when growing into other vegetation. Some are herbs or small trees. Many species have extrafloral nectaries.
Sennas have for millennia played a major role in herbalism and folk medicine. Sennas act as purgatives and are similar to aloe and rhubarb in having as active ingredients anthraquinone derivatives and their glucosides. The latter are called sennosides or senna glycosides. Senna alexandrina is used in modern medicine as a laxative; acting on the lower bowel, it is especially useful in alleviating constipation. It increases the peristaltic movements of the colon by irritating the colonic mucosa. The plants are most often prepared as an infusion. Senna glycosides are listed as ATC code A06AB06 on their own and A06AB56 in combined preparations.
Senna is a potent laxative. Its cathartic effects can be obtained from a tea prepared from one or two teaspoonfuls of dried leaves. Senna's use in treating constipation is well documented. It is one of the most popular laxatives, especially in the elderly and for long-term laxative treatment.
Senna is also the primary ingredient found in most "dieter's teas". The combination of acting as a stimulant which reduces a dieter's appetite, and the laxative properties that cause food to move through their system before as many calories can be absorbed is a combination that can lead to rapid and even dangerous weight loss.
The senna constituents, aloe-emodin and beta-sitosterol, possess inhibitory activity against cancer cells in mice.
Senna was not found to have antidiabetic activity when tested in diabetic mice.
The stimulant action of sennosides should be taken into account for those who suffer from any conditions where stimulants are contraindicated, such as past heart disease, high blood pressure, anxiety attacks, etc. A (generally invisible and harmless) side effect of taking Senna medication regularly is Melanosis coli, a brown discoloration of the colon wall.
Senna contains anthraquinones including dianthrone glycosides (1.5% to 3%), sennosides A and B (rhein dianthrones), sennosides C and D (rhein aloe-emodin heterodianthrones). Numerous minor sennosides have been identified, and all appear to contribute to the laxative effect. The plant also contains free anthroquinones in small amounts including rhein, aloe-emodin, chrysophanol and their glycosides. Senna pods also contain the same rhein dianthrone glycosides as the leaves.
Carbohydrates in the plant include 2% polysaccharides, and approximately 10% mucilage consisting of galactose, arabinose, rhamnose and galacturonic acid. Other carbohydrates include mannose, fructose, glucose, pinitol and sucrose.
Flavonols present include isorhamnetin and kaempferol. Glycosides 6-hydroxymusizin and tinnevellin are also found.
Other constituents in senna include chrysophanic acid, salicylic acid, saponin, resin, mannitol, sodium potassium tartrate and trace amounts of volatile oil.
The Senna Leaf Extract used in dietary supplements is derived from the leaves of the plant Senna (Cassia senna L.).
• Effective laxative (mild for the elderly and for long term)
• Weight Loss effect
Several mechanisms are postulated as to how senna acts as an effective laxative. The anthraquinone glycosides are hydrolyzed by intestinal bacteria to yield the active, freed anthraquinones. Alternately, it has been suggested that anthraquinones are absorbed in small quantities from the small intestine and hydrolyzed in the liver. The resultant anthraquinones are secreted into the colon. One report using human intestinal flora finds sennoside A to eventually be converted to rheinanthrone, which is the active principle causing peristalsis of the large intestines. Sennosides A and B also play a role in inducing fluid secretion in the colon. Sennosides irritate the lining of the large intestine, causing contraction, which results in a bowel movement approximately 10 hours after the dose is taken.
Prostaglandins may also be involved in the laxative actions. The kinetics of senna constituents rhein and aloe-emodin have been investigated in man.
Patients with intestinal obstruction.
Documented endometrial stimulation and mutagenic and genotoxic. Avoid use
Generally, senna may cause mild abdominal discomfort such as cramping. Prolonged use may alter electrolytes. Patients with intestinal obstruction should avoid senna.
Chronic use of any laxative, in particular irritant laxatives such as senna, often results in a “laxative-dependency syndrome'' characterized by poor gastric motility in the absence of repeated laxative administration. Other reports of laxative abuse include laxative-induced diarrhea, and osteomalacia and arthropathy associated with prolonged use of the product.
The chronic use of anthroquinone glycosides has been associated with pigmentation of the colon (melanosis coli). Several cases of reversible finger clubbing (enlargement of the ends of the fingers and toes) have been reported following long-term abuse of senna-containing laxatives. One report described a woman who developed finger clubbing following ingestion of from 4 to 40 Senokot tablets per day for about 15 years. Clubbing reversed after the laxative was discontinued. The mechanism has been postulated to be related to either increased vascularity of the nail beds or a systemic metabolic abnormality secondary to chronic laxative ingestion.
Senna abuse has been associated with the development of cachexia and reduced serum globulin levels after chronic ingestion.
Case reports include occupational asthma and rhinoconjunctivitis from a factory worker exposed to senna-containing hair dyes, and asthma and allergy symptoms from workers in a bulk laxative manufacturing facility.
Various case reports of senna toxicity are available, and include coma and neuropathy after ingestion of a senna-combination laxative as well as hepatitis after chronic use of the plant.
Risk assessment for senna's use during pregnancy has been addressed. One review suggests senna to be the “stimulant laxative” of choice during pregnancy and lactation. Uterine motility was not stimulated by sennosides in one report in pregnant ewes. None of the breast-fed infants experienced abnormal stool consistency from their mothers' ingestion of senna laxatives. The constituent rhein, taken from milk samples varied in concentration from 0 to 27 mg/ml, with between 89% to 94% of values ≤ 10 mg/ml. Nonstandardized laxatives are not recommended during pregnancy.
Myenteric neurons in the rat colon are not destroyed by sennosides, as had been earlier suggested. Anthraquinone purgatives in excess were said to have caused degeneration of neurons. Toxicity studies separating toxic components of senna's anthraquinone derivatives have been performed.
Various case reports of senna toxicity are available, and include coma and neuropathy after ingestion of a senna-combination laxative, and hepatitis after chronic use of the plant.
• Sennaleaves or pods have been used as a cathartic laxative at doses of 0.6 to 2 g/day, with a daily dose of sennoside B from 20 to 30 mg. Senna should not be used at higher doses or for extended periods of time.
• Consult physicians for different condition specifics.
GNI’s Senna Leaf Features and Benefits:
Senna Leaf Extract is one of GNI's most competitive products, with many advantages as list in the following, produced as our patent-pending process and know-how technology from Cassia senna L. leaves.
• Produced with pure water only
• High purity: over 20%
• NO solvent - residual free
• Yellow to Brown in appearance
• High solubility in water
• High anti-bacteria, and longer shelf life
4%, 8%, 10%, 20% Sennosides HPLC