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St. John’s Wort Extract
St. John’s Wort Extract
Synonyms--- Hypericum perforatum,St John's wort, Common St John's wort, Tipton's Weed, Chase-devil, Klamath weed.
Chemical Name:4,5,7,4',5',7'-Hexahydroxy-2,2'-dimethylnaphthodianthrone ; 1,3,4,6,8,13-hexahydroxy-10,11-dimethylphenanthro[1,10,9,8-opqra]perylene-7,14-dione
CAS No.: 548-04-9
Molecular Formula: C30H16O8
Mol. Wt.: 504.44
Chemical Name:(1R,5S,7R,8S)-4-hydroxy-8-methyl-3,5,7-tris(3-methylbut-2-enyl)-8- (4-methylpent-3-enyl)-1-(2-methylpropanoyl)bicyclo[3.3.1]non-3-ene-2,9-dione
CAS No.: 11079-53-1
Molecular Formula: C35H52O4
St John'swort is the plant species Hypericum perforatum, in the Hypericaceae family, and is also known as Tipton's Weed, Chase-devil, or Klamath weed. St John's wort is used to refer to any species of the genus Hypericum. Therefore, H. perforatum is sometimes called Common St John's wort to differentiate it. St John'swort(Hypericum perforatum ) is a yellow-flowering, stoloniferous or sarmentose, perennial herb.
St John'swort is widely known as an herbal treatment for depression.It is estimated that almost all Americans will experience a form of depression at some point in their lives. While the cause is not full understood, nature has provided a remarkable herb, namely St. John’s Wort, which can help depression. In Germany, St. John’s Wort has a long history of use, particularly as a folk remedy in the treatment of wounds, kidney and lung ailments, and depression. Also the indications and usage approved by German Commission E include: Anxiety; Depressive moods; Inflammation of the skin; Blunt injuries; Wounds and burns.
St. John’s Wort extract is a very complex substance with many bioactive compounds, including polyphenols, a high concentration Melatonin, and amino acids. Amino acids are the building blocks of most neurotransmitters and some, such as GABA, are active in their own right. It also contains essential oils composed mainly of sesquiterpenes.
1. Naphthodianthrones: This class includes Hypericin, Pseudohypericin, Protohypericin, Protopseudohypericin, protopseudohypericin,Cyclopseudohypericin, etc.
2. Phloroglucinols (hyperforin, adhyperforin).
3. Favonoids: These include:
a. Flavonols: quercetin, kaempferol, luteolin, myricetin. And quercetin has been shown in one study to inhibit MAO in vitro.
b. Flavonol glycosides: hyperoside, also called hyperin, amentoflavone, rutin, etc.
4. Phloroglucinols & derivatives: mainly hyperforin, which is naturally present in St. John’s Wort in larger amouts than hypericin, the marker compound to which most St. John’s Wort extracts are now standardized.
5. Tannins: They are believed partly responsible for St. John’s Wort’s anti-diarrheal effects.
6. Epoxyxanthrophylls: These compounds may be involved in St. John’s Wort’s effects on burns, by increasing available oxygen.
7. Caffeic acid derivatives (Phenolic acids) including: chlorogenic acid, 3-O-coumaroylquinic acid.
The naphthodianthrones hypericin and pseudohypericin along with the phloroglucinol derivative hyperforin are thought to be the main active components.
Hypericin is a naphthodianthrone, a red-colored anthraquinone-derivative, which, together with hyperforin, is one of the principal active constituents of St John's wort. Hypericin is believed to act as an antibiotic and non-specific kinase inhibitor. Hypericin may inhibit the action of the enzyme dopamine β-hydroxylase, leading to increased dopamine levels, although thus possibly decreasing norepinephrine and epinephrine.
Hyperforin is a phytochemical produced by some of the members of the plant genus Hypericum, notably Hypericum perforatum (St John's wort). Hyperforin is unstable in the presence of light and oxygen. Hyperforin is believed to be the primary active constituent responsible for the antidepressant and anxiolytic properties of the extracts of St. John's wort. Hyperforin has antibiotic properties.
St John’sWort Extract’s main effects:
Today St. John’s Wort extract is mainly used to treat mild to moderate depression. This action appears to be based on the ability of hypericin and other components of St. John’s Wort to inhibit monoamine oxidase (MAO) types A and B. Although it is highly unlikely that any one compound is responsible for the antidepressant effectiveness of St. John’s Wort, one laboratory study showed that hyperforin inhibited the uptake of serotonin, dopamine, noradrenaline, gamma-aminobutyric acid, and L-glutamate (Chatterjee et al., 1998)
St. John’sWort extract is an effective option in the treatment of mildly or moderately depressed patients, which avoids the well-known side effects of other antidepressant agents like tricyclics or SSRIs.
Antiviral activity (Anti-bird-flu-H5N1-and-H9N2):
The antiviral activity of substances contained in the St. John’s Wort extract has been extensively studied since the second half of the eighties. This action is due to hypericin, pseudohypericin and hyperforin. It is efficient antiviral agents against vesicular stomatitis, influenza virus and herpes, simplex virus types I and II.
Researchers from the University of Freiburg in Germany found that St. John’s Wort extract has antibacterial actions due to its hyperforin content. They found that hyperforin has effects on the growth of various bacteria: Candida albicans, or thrush, a fungus of the mouth and throat; Stapylococcus aureus and Corynebacterium diphtheriae, both of which cause common infections; most importantly inhibits the growth of MRSA (meticillin-resistant S. aureus), bacteria that are resistant to penicillin and other antibiotics and therefore cause infections that are often impossible to treat.
Other medical uses:
It has Effectiveness in the treatment of certain somatoform disorders
Its constituent chemical, hyperforin, may be useful for treatment of alcoholism
Hyperforin has also been found to have antibacterial properties against gram-negative bacteria.
Possible option against Parkinson's disease, which suggests that St John's wort has antioxidant active ingredients that could help reduce the neuronal degeneration caused by the disease.
Recent evidence suggests that daily treatment with St. Johns wort may improve the most common physical and behavioural symptoms associated with premenstrual syndrome.
Externally, St John's wort oil is used for the treatment of wounds, abrasions, and first degree burns.
The St. John’s Wort Extract used in dietary supplements is derived from the aerial parts in blossom of the plant St. John’s Wort (Hypericum perforatum L．).
The St John's wort mechanism is believed to inhibit the uptake of serotonin (5-HT) dopamine, and noradrenaline, much like the conventional selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor (SSRI) antidepressants. It also has affinity for GABA and glutamate receptors. The major active antidepressive constituents in St John's wort are thought to be hyperforin and hypericin, although other biologically active constituents present, for example, flavonoids and tannins, may also be involved.
St. John’s Wort extract is safeand generally well tolerated, no side effects have been reported to date, but relying on this type of treatment alone, and avoiding conventional medical care, may have serious health consequences.
• The typical dose is 900-1500mg per day (usually in 2-3 doses throughout the day). It has been suggested at least 900 mg of the active ingredient (hypericum) must be taken to see a therapeutic effect.
• Consult physicians for different condition specifics.
GNI’s St John’s Wort Extract Features and Benefits:
St. John’sWort extractis one of GNI's most competitive products, with many advantages as list in the following, produced as our patent-pending process and know-how technology from Hypericum perforatum L．aerial parts in blossom.
• Produced with pure water only
• High purity: over 0.3% Hypericin and 3% Hyperforin
• NO solvent - residual free
• Dark Brown in appearance
• High solubility in water
• High anti-bacteria, and longer shelf life
0.3% Hypericins UV;
0.3% Hypericin HPLC
3% Hyperforin HPLC