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Pine Bark Extract
Pine Bark Extract
Synonyms--- Maritime Pine(Pinus maritima or Pinus pinaster)
Proanthocyanidin B4is a B type proanthocyanidin.Proanthocyanidin-B4 is a catechin-(4α→8)-epicatechin dimer. It is found in the litchi pericarp, in grape seeds, and, along with 4-cis-isomer of procyanidin B4, in beer.
CAS Number: 29106-51-2
The Maritime Pine (Pinus maritima or Pinus pinaster) is a pine native to the western Mediterranean region. It is a medium-size tree, reaching 20-35 m tall and with a trunk diameter of up to 1.2 m, exceptionally 1.8 m.The bark is orange-red, thick and deeply fissured at the base of the trunk, somewhat thinner in the upper crown.
It is widely planted for timber. It is also used as a source of flavonoids, catechins, proanthocyanidins, and phenolic acids; notably in the patented extract "pycnogenol". The patents for pycnogenol refer to Pinus maritima, an obsolete synonym for Pinus pinaster.
The Pine Bark Extract used in dietary supplements is derived from the bark of the plant pine (Pinus maritima).
• Anti-oxidant activity
• Anticarcinogenic activity (Anti-cancer)
• Anti-imflamatory and antimicrobial
• Vasodilatory Properties
OPCs possess antioxidant, antimutagenic, anticarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory, and antiviral properties.
The potent antioxidative properties of OPCs account for their therapeutic benefit in disease states characterized by oxidative stress. OPCs also demonstrate potent, concentration-dependent, free radical scavenging ability. (9) Studies in mice show OPCs inhibit chemically-induced lipid peroxidation, DNA fragmentation, and subsequent apoptosis (indicators of oxidative tissue damage) in a dose-dependent manner in hepatic and brain tissue. (10) Human studies also demonstrate an antioxidative mechanism as evidenced by decreased lipid peroxidation of LDL cholesterol (11,12) and increased free-radical trapping capacity after consumption of red wine containing OPCs. (7)
OPCs appear to have an affinity for vascular tissue and strongly inhibit several enzymes involved in degradation of collagen, elastin, and hyaluronic acid, the main structural components of the extravascular matrix. (13) These effects are perhaps attributable to trapping reactive oxygen species and preventing oxidative injury to vascular endothelium. In vitro studies have also found OPCs increase resistance of cell membranes to injury and degradation. (14,15)
Proanthocyanidins possess endothelium-dependent relaxing (EDR) activity in blood vessels by increasing nitric oxide production, (16) and stimulate vascular endothelial growth factor, a signaling factor involved in initiation of wound healing. OPCs may also protect the microvasculature of the retina and increase visual acuity, possibly by increasing the rate of rhodopsin regeneration. (17-19) In a rabbit model of ischemia/ reperfusion, OPCs' beneficial effects were attributed to binding of copper and iron liberated from myocardial tissue, thereby reducing their oxidative effects. (20) The positive effects of OPCs on microcirculation are also attributed to their inhibition of LDL oxidation. (11,12,21) and decreased incidence of foam cells, markers of early stage atherosclerosis. (22) Grape seed proanthocyanidins may have a vitamin E-sparing effect. (23) A clinical study of 10 healthy volunteers examining the effect of OPC supplementation on markers of oxidative stress showed significantly increased levels of alpha-tocopherol in red cell membranes. (24)
OPCs from pine bark decrease symptoms of chronic inflammation. In vitro studies demonstrate anti-inflammatory effects may be due to inhibition of peroxide generation by macrophages. (25,26) In addition, animal studies demonstrate OPCs from grape seed significantly inhibit formation of proinflammatory cytokines, interleukin 1-beta, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha. (27)
OPCs possess natural antimutagenic properties when exposed to certain strains of bacteria. (28) Although the exact mechanism is not known, an in vitro study found OPCs exhibit selective cytotoxicity for certain cancerous cell lines, while remaining non-toxic to normal human gastric mucosal cells and macrophages. (29) An in vitro study in a mouse skin tumor model demonstrated OPCs' inhibition of two markers of tumor promotion. (30)
Pine Bark Extract is safe.
• The typical dose is 300-900mg per day (usually in 2-3 doses throughout the day).
• Consult physicians for different condition specifics.
GNI’s Pine Bark Extract Features and Benefits:
Pine Bark Extract is one of GNI's most competitive products, with many advantages as list in the following, produced as our patent-pending process and know-how technology from Pinus maritima bark.
• Produced with pure water only
• High purity: over 95%
• NO solvent - residual free
• Red-brown in appearance
• High solubility in water
• High anti-bacteria, and longer shelf life
95% Proanthocyanidins UV-VIS,
95%, 75% Polyphenols UV-VIS