Address: Room 1106, #13-3 Chang Fang Dong Jun,#111 East RenMin Anvenue, Changsha,Hunan, 410016, China
Buckthorn Bark Extract, Fran
Buckthorn Bark Extract, Fran
Synonyms--- Glossy Buckthorn, Alder Buckthorn, Breaking Buckthorn, Frangula, Arrow Wood, Persian Berries, Black Alder Bark and Black Dogwood
Chemical Name: 3-[(6-deoxy-alpha-L-mannopyranosyl) oxy]-1-(beta-D-glucopyranosyloxy)-8- hydroxy-6-methylanthraquinone
CAS No.: 21133-53-9
Molecular Formula: C27H30O14
Mol. Wt.: 578.5
frangula emodin H H
frangulin A H Rha
glucofrangulin A Glc Rha
frangulin B H Api
glucofrangulin B Glc Api
B uckthorn, Rhamnus frangulaL. (commonly referred to as Glossy Buckthorn, Alder Buckthorn, Breaking Buckthorn, Frangula, Arrow Wood, Persian Berries, Black Alder Bark and Black Dogwood) is a tall deciduous shrub native to Europe, North Africa, and Asia. It is an invasive species in North America, invading forests in the Northeastern and wetlands and moist forest in the Midwestern United States, and is expected to continue to expand its North American range with time.
Rhamnus frangulais a tall deciduous shrub, sometimes referred to as a small tree that grows up to 6 m (20 ft) tall and 4.5 m (15 ft) wide. Leaves are ovate, 4-5’’ long by 3-4’’ wide, arranged oppositely or whorled on stem. The flowers are small, greenish-white, hermaphroditic, and insect pollinated, flowering in mid-June in New Hampshire. Fruit is small black berries that drop in late summer to early fall. Individual plants can produce as many as 400-1800 fruits with three seeds each. Seeds are dispersed by birds and mice, but many seeds simply fall to the ground underneath the parent, creating a dense local population.
The bark is primarily used for constipation and for conditions that require a softened stool such as hemorrhoids, anal fissures, and after rectal-anal surgery. The bark of a related North American species, Rhamnus purshiana(Cascara Buckthorn), is used likewise for the same purposes. The bark is taken from the stem and branches in the spring but must be stored for at least a year or, alternatively, heat treated before using to allow anthrones in the fresh bark to oxidize, otherwise preparations will cause stomach upset. Buckthorn bark is a mild laxative that works by preventing electrolytes and water from being absorbed in the large intestine; the excess liquid softens the stool and promotes bowel contractions. The bark takes about 6 to 8 hours to work after ingestion and should not be used for more than a few days at a time unless otherwise prescribed. Both the German and British Pharmacopoeias recommend Rhamnus frangula bark for constipation and for all disorders in which defecation with a soft stool is desired, e.g. anal fissures, hemorrhoids and after rectal operations. It also recommends a small dose for stomach and bowel catarrh. The active glycosides are hydrolyzed in the gut into their aglycones at least in part by the action of bacterial enzymes; by influencing the water and electrolyte transport in the colon, these aglycones are responsible for the laxative action. Emodin at different concentrations has many therapeutic benefits including: anti-inflammatory at 15mg/kg; antiseptic; antispasmodic; antiulcer, cathartic; vasorelaxant and viricidal. Anthraquinones are also cytotoxic and stimulate cellular regeneration, detoxification and cleansing. Chronic use of anthraquinones-type laxatives, however, often causes pseudomelanosis coli and should be avoided.
Anthraquinone glycosides, especially glucofrangulins A and B (bis-glycosides with glucose and rhamnose (= A) and apiose (= B) and frangulins A and B (monoglycosides containing only apiose): further, frangula-emodin, 8-O-glucoside. In the fresh bark, the glucofrangulins occur mainly in the genuine reduced anthrone and dianthrone glycoside forms (especially frangula-emodin anthrone as rhamnoside/glucoside). On storage (for at least one year) or artificial aging they are converted to the oxidized forms; at the same time the glucofrangulins are partly decomposed to the franguilns or frangula-emodin 8-O-glucoside and to the aglycone frangula-emodin. Also contains physcion and chrysophanol in both free and monoglycosidic forms. In addition there are the steam-volatile 2-acetyl-1, 8-dihydronaphthalene and its 8-O-glucoside. Tannins as well as small amounts of peptide alkaloids (frangulanin, franganin) are also present. The occurrence of bitter substances and saponins is disputed.
The Buckthorn Bark Extract used in dietary supplements is derived from the bark of the stem and branches of the plantRhamnus frangulaL. (stored for at least one year).
• Mild Laxative Effects
•Treating Annual Fissures
• Treating Constipation
• Treating Hemorrhoids
• Cellular Regeneration Effects
•Pre and Post Operative Cleansing Effects
Referring to the above information.
In large dosages, the anthraquinones-type laxative compounds may increase the action of other laxatives and should not be taken at the same time. With chronic use/abuse, a potassium deficiency may develop that may potentiate the effects of cardiotonic glycosides.
Laxatives are contraindicated in the case of impacted bowel (serious bowel obstruction) or ileus of any origin (danger of intestinal rupture). Stimulant laxatives are also not recommended for the treatment of chronic constipation. Do not use during pregnancy and lactation, or if you have occlusion of the intestines, appendicitis, colitis or Crohn's disease.
Buckthorn Bark should not be taken for long periods of time. Excessive use will result in loss of electrolytes, especially potassium, and may cause muscular weakness, constipation, and pigment deposits in the mucous membranes of the intestines (melanosis coli). A recent study suggested that pseudomelanosis coli is associated with an increased colorectal cancer risk.