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Cranberry (N. America) Extra
Cranberry (N. America) Extra
Synonyms--- Vaccinium macrocarponor Oxycoccos macrocarpus , Large cranberry, American Cranberry, Bearberry, Fenberry
Cyanidin ( A particular type of Anthocyanidin)
Chemical Name: 2-(3,4-Dihydroxyphenyl) chromenylium-3,5,7-triol
Molecular Formula: C15H11O6+
Anthocyanidinsare common plant pigments. They are the sugar-free counterparts of anthocyanins based on the flavylium ion or 2-phenylchromenylium (chromenylium is referred also to as benzopyrylium). They form a large group of polymethine dye. In particular anthocyanidins are salt derivatives of the 2-phenylchromenylium cation, also known as flavylium cation. The phenyl group at the 2-position can carry different substituents. The counterion of the flavylium cation is mostly chloride. With this positive charge, the anthocyanidins differ from other flavonoids. And 3-Deoxyanthocyanidins are a class of anthocyanidins lacking a hydroxyl group on carbon 3.
Anthocyanidinsare natural organic compounds. They are pigments found in many redberries including but not limited to grapes, bilberry, blackberry, blueberry, cherry, cranberry, elderberry, hawthorn, loganberry, acai berry and raspberry. They can also be found in other fruits such as apples and plums. They are also found in red cabbage. Bilberry (Vaccinium myrtillus L.) are the best of them. They have characteristic color, though this can change with pH, red ph < 3, violet at pH 7-8, blue at pH > 11. The highest concentrations of Anthocyanidins are found in the skin of the fruit.
Cranberriesare a group of evergreen dwarf shrubs or trailing vines in the genus Vaccinium subgenus Oxycoccos, or in some treatments, in the distinct genus Oxycoccos. There are three to four species of cranberry, classified in two sections: Subgenus Oxycoccos, sect. Oxycoccos: Vaccinium oxycoccos or Oxycoccos palustris (Common Cranberry or Northern Cranberry), Vaccinium microcarpum or Oxycoccos microcarpus (Small Cranberry), Vaccinium macrocarponor Oxycoccos macrocarpus (Large cranberry, American Cranberry, Bearberry); Subgenus Oxycoccos, sect. Oxycoccoides: Vaccinium erythrocarpum or Oxycoccos erythrocarpus. Cranberries are related to bilberries, blueberries, and huckleberries, all in Vaccinium subgenus Vaccinium. These differ in having stouter, woodier stems forming taller shrubs, and in the bell-shaped flowers, the petals not being reflexed. They are found in acidic bogs throughout the cooler parts of the Northern Hemisphere. The name cranberry derives from "craneberry", first named by early European settlers in America who felt the expanding flower, stem, calyx, and petals resembled the neck, head, and bill of a crane. Another name used in northeastern Canada is mossberry. The traditional English name for Vaccinium oxycoccos, fenberry, originated from plants found growing in fen (marsh) lands.
Since the early 21st century within the global functional food industry, there has been a rapidly growing recognition of cranberries for their consumer product popularity, nutrient content and antioxidant qualities, giving them commercial status as a "superfruit".
About 95% of cranberries are processed into products such as juice drinks, sauce, and sweetened dried cranberries. The remaining 5% are sold fresh to consumers. Cranberries are normally considered too sharp to be eaten plain and raw. Cranberry juice is a major use of cranberries; it is usually either sweetened to make "cranberry juice cocktail" or blended with other fruit juices to reduce its natural severe tartness. Many cocktails, including the Cosmopolitan, are made with cranberry juice. Cranberry wine is made in some of the cranberry-growing regions of the United States from either whole cranberries, cranberry juice or cranberry juice concentrate.
Health benefits and potential health benefits
Nutrients and antioxidant capacity
Cranberries have moderate levels of vitamin C, dietary fiber and the essential dietary mineral, manganese, as well as a balanced profile of other essential micronutrients.
Raw cranberries and cranberry juice are abundant food sources of the anthocyanidin flavonoids, cyanidin, peonidin and quercetin. These compounds have shown promise as anti-cancer agents in in vitro studies. Cranberries are a source of polyphenol antioxidants, phytochemicals under active research for possible benefits to the cardiovascular system and immune system, and as anti-cancer agents.By measure of the Oxygen Radical Absorbance Capacity with an ORAC score of 9,584 units per 100 g, cranberry ranks near the top of 277 commonly consumed foods in the United States.
Since 2002, there has been an increasing focus on the potential role of cranberry polyphenolic constituents in preventing several types of cancer. In a 2001 University of Maine study that compared cranberries with twenty other fruits, cranberries had the largest amount of both free and total phenols, with red grapes at a distant second place. Cranberry tannins have anti-clotting properties and may reduce urinary tract infections and the amount of dental plaque-causing oral bacteria, thus being a prophylaxis for gingivitis.
Cranberry juice contains a chemical component, a high molecular weight non-dializable material (NDM), as noted above, that is able to inhibit and even reverse the formation of plaque by Streptococcus mutans pathogens that cause tooth decay. Cranberry juice components also show efficacy against formation of kidney stones.
There is potential benefit of cranberry juice consumption against bacterial infections in the urinary system. Research shows that an effect occurs from a component of the juice inhibiting bacterial attachment to the bladder and urethra.
The Cranberry used in dietary supplements is derived from the fruits of Cranberry (Vaccinium macrocarponL.).
• Antioxidant Effect
• Radical-Scavenging Effect
• Anti-adhesion propertiesand Anti-bacteria infections in the urinary system
• Cardiovascular Protection
• Inhibit Obesity
• Inhibit Diabetes
• Tooth Protection Effect
Anthocyanidins have putative antioxidant and radical-scavenging effects which may protect cells from oxidative damage and reduce risk of cardiovascular diseases and cancer. One theory is that dietary intake of Anthocyanidins may inhibit development of obesity and diabetes as well as contain inflammatory mechanisms. And it is said it have eyesight improving effects. Other studies have generally shown that the glucoside derivative of Anthocyanidins may have a role in cancer therapy.
Other Mechanisms refer to the above information.
Cranberry is safe.
An autumn 2004 caution from the Committee on Safety of Medicines, the UK agency dealing with drug safety, advised patients taking warfarin not to drink cranberry juice after adverse effects (such as increased incidence of bruising) were reported, possibly resulting from the presence of salicylic acid native to polyphenol-rich plants such as the cranberry. However, during 2006-8, several reviews of case reports and pilot studies have failed to confirm this effect, collectively indicating no statistically significant interaction between daily consumption of 250 mL cranberry juice and warfarin in the general population. A gene (VKORC1, CYP2C9) has been shown to change warfarin sensitivity. This gene may also contribute to bruising susceptibility as a result of cranberries for carriers of the gene.
• The typical dose is 300-900mg per day (usually in 2-3 doses throughout the day).
• Consult physicians for different condition specifics.
GNI’s Cranberry Extract Features and Benefits:
Cranberry is one of GNI's most competitive products, with many advantages as list in the following, produced as our patent-pending process and know-how technology from Vaccinium macrocarponL. fruit (berry).
• Produced with pure water only
• High purity: over 25%
• NO solvent - residual free
• Dark Red in appearance
• High solubility in water
• High anti-bacteria, and longer shelf life
5~25% Anthocyanidins UV,
4:1, 10:1, 25:1,
Concentrate 90% Solids (90mx)